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Dr. Tyler Buckley

Medical Oncologist

Different kinds of immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a way to treat a disease by either making the immune system stronger or making it weaker. There are two types of treatment: immunotherapy that boosts the immune system and immunotherapy that weakens the immune system. CAR T-cell therapy, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Monoclonal antibodies, and Cytokine therapy are all types of immunotherapy that are used today.

CAR T-cell immunotherapy is a good way to treat cancer that helps patients get rid of the disease completely. This is helpful when other treatments, like chemotherapy, don't work.

In this therapy, a genetically changed T cell is injected into the body through an IV. The T cells move around and kill the cancer cells. Before the CAR T cells are given, a short course of chemotherapy is given to make sure that the normal immune system will accept them.

Multiple myeloma is usually treated with this kind of therapy. Even though it is a treatment that can save lives, it can fail to work or cause serious side effects.

Immunotherapy based on cytokines has been a very successful way to treat cancer. Cytokines have been studied as a way to improve the effectiveness of cancer treatments and to help antigen-specific TILs and CAR cells live longer. Even though these strategies may also help with tumor immunosurveillance, they have not yet led to a breakthrough in improving the therapeutic index. But as more research is done on the biology of cytokines, people are eagerly waiting for results.

Small molecules called cytokines are made by different immune cells. They are an important part of keeping the immune system in check. They do things like encourage tumor-specific lymphocytes to move into the area.
Increasing the growth of cells that are found in tumors.
Changing how both antigen-presenting cells and effector cells become what they are.

Immune system modulators, which are a type of non-specific immunotherapy, boost the body's immune system and make it better able to fight off attacks. It is a treatment that might help a lot of different things. But there are some things that could go wrong if you use it.

Some of the side effects of immunotherapy include hepatitis, diarrhea, itching, and muscle pain. However, many patients find that the benefits of treatment outweigh the risks.

Immunotherapy can be used to treat diseases that happen on their own, allergies, and some types of cancer. Generally, it is combined with chemotherapy. A few new treatments are also being worked on. Interferon and interleukin-2 are two of these.

Monoclonal antibodies are proteins in the immune system that have been changed genetically to bind to a certain target. They have been approved to treat several different kinds of cancer. With this therapy, T cells can be brought close to cancer cells to help kill them. However, it can also cause side effects.

Over the past 20 years, the way monoclonal antibodies are used in immunotherapy has changed. It has helped make better biotherapeutics possible. Because of this, the market for monoclonal antibodies is expected to grow steadily around the world.

In the past few years, researchers have also become interested in making bispecific immunotherapeutics. Bispecifics, which are also called polyspecifics, can interact with more than one epitope at once.

Bispecific T-cell engagers for immunotherapy (BiTEs) are a new type of treatment that focuses on tumor-specific antigens while also activating T-cells. The BiTE molecule binds the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the tumor-specific antigen on the tumor cell simultaneously.

TCEs are very effective and can be used to treat cancer without chemotherapy. But it is important to design molecules that have a wide therapeutic window and a long half-life. Safety concerns about protein aggregates are also important to keep in mind.

Because there are so many different BiTE molecules in development right now, there are many ways to treat hematologic cancers. Several have been approved, and a number of others are now being tested in people. SKBR3 HER2+ cell line is one of these. In December 2014, the FDA approved Blinatumomab, a canonical CD3/CD19 BiTE, to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It has shown a lot of promise and could be used with other types of immunotherapy.

Immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) given through the bladder is a well-known treatment for bladder cancer. It is the gold standard for treating bladder cancers that don't spread to the muscles and have a high or intermediate risk. Even though the disease comes back in many patients, it doesn't get worse very often. Also, the median time until the cancer comes back isn't long enough for people who are treated with intravenous BCG therapy instead of TUR. But up to 50% of people can have children in the first five years after treatment.

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, or BCG, is a live strain of Mycobacterium Bovis that has been made less dangerous. In many developing countries where tuberculosis is common, the bacterium is used to make vaccines.

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